Psychrophilic Microorganisms in Marine Environments
from: Cold-Adapted Microorganisms (Edited by: Isao Yumoto). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2013)
Psychrophilic microorganisms are extremophiles that are capable of growth and reproduction at low temperatures. They are present in marine environments, which occupy slightly more than 70% of Earth's surface, especially in the Arctic, Antarctica, and deep seas at temperatures lower than 15°C. Marine psychrophiles utilize a wide variety of metabolic pathways, including photosynthesis, chemoautotrophy, and heterotrophy. The deep-sea bacteria called psychropiezophiles "love" both high pressure and low temperature. Marine psychrophiles are characterized by lipid cell membranes chemically resistant to hardening in response to the cold. Most psychrophiles are Bacteria, and psychrophily is present in widely diverse microbial lineages within the broad groups of Alpha-, Beta-, Delta-, and Gammaproteobacteria and the Bacteroidetes phylum read more ...