The Transporters of Plastids - New Insights into an Old Field
Karsten Fischer, Andreas P.M. Weber and Hans-Henning Kunz
from: Chloroplasts: Current Research and Future Trends (Edited by: Helmut Kirchhoff). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2016) Pages: 209-240.
Plastids are the hallmark organelles of all photosynthetic eukaryotes and are the site of major anabolic pathways. Metabolic pathways within chloroplasts are highly connected with pathways occurring in the surrounding cytosol and in other organelles, which mandates a massive flux of organic solutes across the chloroplast envelope membranes. In addition, inorganic ions, taken up by the roots and transported to the other plant organs, have to be distributed within the cell to the different organelles, including plastids. Hence, a plethora of metabolite and ion transport systems that mediate these fluxes are found in plastids. During the evolution of chloroplasts from a cyanobacterial ancestor, the majority of the chloroplast envelope membrane transporters were recruited from the pre-existing repertoire of host transporters whilst only few are of cyanobacterial provenance. We will review the current knowledge on chloroplast metabolite and ion transporters from an evolutionary perspective and for some discuss their physiological functions read more ...