Protein Secretion in Chlamydia
Agathe Subtil and Richard D. Hayward
from: Chlamydia Biology: From Genome to Disease (Edited by: Ming Tan, Johannes H. Hegemann and Christine Sütterlin). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2020) Pages: 151-176.
Protein secretion is fundamental to microbial physiology and underlies virulence-associated processes including adhesion, invasion, intracellular replication and the delivery of exotoxins. Protein secretion is key to the interaction with the environment, and is thus an essential feature of the biology of the Chlamydiaceae, which interact with a eukaryotic host throughout their developmental cycle. Here we review the mechanisms of secretion relevant to the pathogenesis of the Chlamydiaceae. The major secretion pathways are described, including the current knowledge of the structure, mechanism and function of the associated macromolecular machineries. Specifically, we review the role of the type 2, 3 and 5 secretion pathways in the interactions between these bacteria and their host cell, and we discuss the emerging role for vesicles released from the outer membrane of the intracellular reticulate bodies. We review how new genetic techniques and chemical inhibitors have advanced our understanding of the contribution of different secretory pathways to the infection process and allowed the definitive identification of secretion substrates. We also discuss how state-of-the-art imaging has contributed to further understanding the structure and mechanism of the associated macromolecular machineries. We consider the future opportunities for translating this knowledge into the development of vaccines, novel antimicrobials and diagnostic tools, and discuss the implications beyond the field of chlamydial research read more ...