Secretion Systems of the Enterobacterial Phytopathogen, Erwinia
Terry J. Evans, Daniel Pérez-Mendoza, Rita E. Monson, Hannah G. Stickland, and George P.C. Salmond
from: Bacterial Secreted Proteins: Secretory Mechanisms and Role in Pathogenesis (Edited by: Karl Wooldridge). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2009)
Sequencing of the phytopathogenic bacterium, Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica revealed the presence of the six main bacterial secretion systems known to exist in Gram negative bacteria. The Erwinias have proven to be good experimental systems for investigating the mechanisms of protein secretion, and this is discussed in relation to Type I and Type II secretion. The physiological and pathogenic importance of the secretion systems is explained. A wide variety of proteins is exported by the Erwinias, and these secreted products play essential roles in adaptation to the environmental niches and lifestyles that the Erwinias are able to exploit. The physiological functions of this wide array of secreted proteins are discussed. A thorough bioinformatic analysis of the Type IV secretion system is presented - a system that impacts on virulence in Erwinia, but which has not been heavily investigated experimentally. Finally, the contribution of horizontally acquired islands with respect to secretion is discussed read more ...