Nucleotide Second Messengers: (p)ppGpp and Cyclic Dinucleotides
Danny K. Fung, Brent W. Anderson, Jessica L. Tse and Jue D. Wang
from: Bacillus: Cellular and Molecular Biology (Third edition) (Edited by: Peter L. Graumann). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2017) Pages: 439-466.
Bacteria adapt to diverse environmental changes by intricate regulation of cellular processes, such as through regulation of gene expression by the alternative sigma factors and various two-component systems. In addition, bacteria produce various nucleotide derivatives that function as second messengers of environmental signals. These nucleotide signals, notably the 'alarmone' guanosine-5', 3'-tetraphosphate or guanosine-5', 3'-pentaphosphate ((p)ppGpp) and the cyclic nucleotides cyclic adenosine monophosphate (c-AMP), cyclic diadenylate monophosphate (c-di-AMP) and cyclic diguanylate monophosphate (c-di-GMP), regulate diverse cellular processes ranging from central dogma processes to cellular behavior such as motility and biofilm development. This chapter summarizes our current knowledge on the signaling principles, cellular targets, and physiological roles of these nucleotide second messengers, using Bacillus subtilis and other bacteria as examples read more ...