Avian Immune Responses to Virus Infection
Lonneke Vervelde and Jim Kaufman
from: Avian Virology: Current Research and Future Trends (Edited by: Siba K. Samal). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2019) Pages: 377-396.
All organisms have evolved a large number of complicated and interwoven immune responses to defend themselves against a wide variety of pathogens. The vast majority of what is known about immunity is from research on humans and biomedical model species. However, the challenges faced by the poultry industry because of infectious diseases from viruses has driven research over many decades. Innate immunity consists of many different systems dependent on a wide variety of host genes, provides the initial stages of response against all pathogens, can provide protection in individuals with the appropriate host alleles, and is crucial for initiation and guidance of the adaptive immune system. Adaptive immunity is particularly important as the basis for vaccination, in which innate immunity is stimulated by adjuvants present in the vaccines. However, the genetics of adaptive immunity can also be important, as resistance to many economically important viruses is dependent on particular generalist alleles of the molecules encoded by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Further research should elucidate the molecular bases for both innate and adaptive immune responses, allowing better genetic breeding, improved vaccines and application to birds outside of the poultry industry read more ...