Infectious Bursal Disease Virus
Shijun J. Zheng
from: Avian Virology: Current Research and Future Trends (Edited by: Siba K. Samal). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2019) Pages: 211-230.
Infectious bursal disease (IBD), also called Gumboro disease, is an acute, highly contagious and immunosuppressive poultry disease caused by IBD virus (IBDV). The immunosuppression as a consequence of IBD increases susceptibility to other microbial infections and the risk of failure in subsequent vaccinations against other diseases. This disease still threatens the poultry industry worldwide, and in particular the frequent emergence of very virulence or variant IBDV strains in vaccinated flocks causes severe economic losses to stakeholders. The genome of IBDV is relatively small, encoding a limited number of proteins that inhibit host antiviral response and induce apoptosis in proliferating B lymphocyte in the bursa of Fabricius (BF), directly breaking down the immune system of infected birds. The virulence factors are crucial for IBDV to avoid host defences and survive as a successful pathogen. Insights into the roles of these viral proteins and cellular microRNAs (miRNAs) in host response will add to the understanding of the pathogenesis of IBDV infection and provide clues to a rational design for safer and effective novel vaccines. This chapter focuses mainly on our current knowledge of IBDV as an aetiological agent of IBD, the virus-host interactions at the protein and the miRNA levels during IBDV infection, and control of IBD by vaccination read more ...