Infectious Bronchitis Virus
Ding Xiang Liu, Yan Ling Ng and To Sing Fung
from: Avian Virology: Current Research and Future Trends (Edited by: Siba K. Samal). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2019) Pages: 133-178.
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is one of the major avian viral pathogens that afflict the global poultry industry. Since its first isolation in 1931, astounding numbers of IBV variants have been identified around the world. With the continuous emergence of pathogenic variants and the lack of efficacious IBV vaccines that provide a broad spectrum of protection, it is crucial to study and understand the biology of this economically important pathogen. In fact, using IBV as a prototype coronavirus, research over the past few decades have unravelled some of the most fundamental concepts in the molecular cell biology and pathogenesis of coronavirus. Also, IBV is among the few coronaviruses that reverse genetics systems were first successfully established. In this chapter, we first briefly revisit the history of IBV, followed by an up-to-date review of its molecular biology and effects on the infected cells, with a focus on the molecular mechanisms of viral replication and the strategies exploited by this virus to regulate and interact with critical cellular signalling pathways, such as ER stress response, autophagy and apoptosis. We then review the pathogenesis of IBV, and end with a discussion on the current status of IBV epizootiology, prevention and control read more ...