Newcastle Disease Virus
Siba K. Samal
from: Avian Virology: Current Research and Future Trends (Edited by: Siba K. Samal). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2019) Pages: 43-84.
Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly contagious avian disease with worldwide distribution that causes severe economic losses in the poultry industry. ND is a notifiable disease throughout the world. The economic impact is not only due to loss of birds, but also due to trade restrictions and embargoes placed on areas and countries where the outbreaks have occurred. In many developing countries, ND is enzootic, and the disease has the greatest impact on villages where the livelihood of people depends on poultry farming. Current vaccines provide protection from clinical signs and mortality but do not prevent virus infection and subsequent virus shedding. Therefore, development of an optimal vaccine is a high priority. ND is caused by virulent strains of Avian avulavirus 1, which are called Newcastle disease virus (NDV). NDV is an enveloped, non-segmented, negative-sense RNA virus belonging to the genus Avulavirus in the family Paramyxoviridae. NDV has been used as a model virus to study the molecular biology of paramyxoviruses. Many of the fundamental properties of paramyxovirus biology are founded on studies of NDV. In recent years, NDV has drawn a lot of research interest not only because it is an important pathogen of poultry, but also because it is an oncolytic agent and a potential vaccine vector for human and animal pathogens. This chapter reviews our current knowledge of NDV as an infectious agent, the immune response to infection and its epizootiology, prevention and control measures read more ...