Genetically Modified Vectors for Control of Arboviruses
Ken E. Olson and Alexander W.E. Franz
from: Arboviruses: Molecular Biology, Evolution and Control (Edited by: Nikos Vasilakis and Duane J. Gubler). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2016) Pages: 315-336.
Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are maintained in nature by cycling between hematophagus arthropod vectors and vertebrate hosts. Medically important mosquito vectors (Aedes and Culex spp) and the arboviruses they transmit have increased their geographic range through human travel, trade and climate change. There are no vaccines or therapeutic drugs readily available to control most arboviruses leaving large segments of the world's human population at risk for disease. Arboviral disease prevention relies on vector control by eliminating breeding sites and using outdoor or indoor insecticides to reduce vector-human contact. These approaches are costly, they impact the environment and they are difficult to sustain. Despite vector control efforts, arboviral diseases continue to emerge in new geographic regions (eg. chikungunya in western hemisphere) or pose increasing threats to human health in urban areas (eg. dengue). New approaches are needed to impede arbovirus transmission and control the emergence, prevalence and spread of arboviruses. In this chapter, we will discuss genetically modified vectors (GMVs) as a potentially important advancement in vector control. This chapter will focus mainly on dengue viruses (DENVs) and the mosquito vector, Ae. aegypti, but will discuss other arboviruses of the families Flaviviridae and Togaviridae and their vectors where appropriate read more ...