Ecological and Epidemiological Factors Influencing Arbovirus Diversity, Evolution and Spread
Roy A. Hall, Sonja Hall-Mendelin, Jody Hobson-Peters, Natalie A. Prow and John S. Mackenzie
from: Arboviruses: Molecular Biology, Evolution and Control (Edited by: Nikos Vasilakis and Duane J. Gubler). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2016) Pages: 135-166.
The requirement for arboviruses to be transmitted between arthropod vectors and vertebrate hosts provides enormous complexity in their strategies to persist in populations and spread into new areas. In this chapter, we discuss ecological, environmental and anthropological factors that influence the spread, establishment and evolution of vector-borne viruses and the emergence of novel arboviral diseases. These topics include the introduction of viruses and vectors into new geographical regions, the adaption of viruses to new vectors and hosts and how these events influence the evolution of new viral strains, new vector-host relationships and the emergence of viral strains with enhanced virulence. The potential effects of climate change, deforestation, and the encroachment of human habitation and agriculture on the emergence and distribution of arboviral diseases are also discussed. In this context, we conclude that real-time arboviral surveillance will be crucial in the management and prevention of arboviral disease, and that enhanced viral detection strategies integrated into high-throughput, cost-effective surveillance systems are essential for monitoring the spread of arboviruses and identifying new and emerging vector-borne viruses in the future read more ...