Genetic Diversity of Arboviruses
Kenneth A. Stapleford, Gonzalo Moratorio and Marco Vignuzzi
from: Arboviruses: Molecular Biology, Evolution and Control (Edited by: Nikos Vasilakis and Duane J. Gubler). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2016) Pages: 121-134.
Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) encompass a wide range of genetically distinct and diverse viral species, with many of these viral pathogens capable of causing severe disease in mammals and plants. Arboviruses are unique in that they must be able to infect and replicate in both invertebrate (mosquitoes, ticks, sand flies, midges, dipteran, and thrips) as well as vertebrate (humans, primates, birds, rodents) and plant hosts in order to maintain a successful viral lifecycle. To facilitate these processes, arboviruses have taken advantage of a wide range of genome compositions, structures, and organizations, as well as the ability to evolve and generate diverse populations within viral species. This unique genetic diversity, both at the genome structure level as well as the nucleotide level, plays essential roles in viral genome replication, transcription, translation, transmission, vector tropism, and pathogenesis. This chapter will introduce the role of genetic diversity in specific arboviruses and the implications of which the levels of diversity can play on the viral life cycle read more ...