Vector-borne Bunyavirus Pathogenesis and Innate Immune Evasion
Brian Friedrich, Birte Kalveram and Shannan L. Rossi
from: Arboviruses: Molecular Biology, Evolution and Control (Edited by: Nikos Vasilakis and Duane J. Gubler). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2016) Pages: 61-70.
The family Bunyaviridae is comprised of viruses that include several human and veterinary pathogens of note with signs and symptoms ranging from hemorrhagic fever to severe encephalitis in humans and fetal malformations and abortion storms in livestock. These viruses are found on every continent except Antarctica and use a variety of methods for transmission ranging from direct spread between vertebrates, use of hemophilic insects, sexual transmission among insects and even thrips that infect plants. Two non-structural proteins, NSs and NSm, serve as major virulence factors which act to subvert the host anti-viral response by interrupting signaling cascades leading to interferon induction, suppressing transcription of interferon and other host-response genes, inhibiting interferon-stimulated genes, and modulating the regulation of cell death. This chapter will focus on virus-host interactions of the arthropod-borne genera orthobunyavirus, phlebovirus and nairovirus read more ...