Antibiotics for Emerging and Re-emerging Diseases
Kazuro Shiomi and Satoshi Ōmura
from: Antibiotics: Current Innovations and Future Trends (Edited by: Sergio Sánchez and Arnold L. Demain). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2015) Pages: 147-174.
Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases are global problems, and a constant supply of new antibiotics is essential if we are to combat these diseases successfully. Among antibiotics currently used against these diseases, antiparasite antibiotics are to the fore and are the major focus of this chapter. For example, tetracyclines are used against malaria, acetylspiramycin and clindamycin are used for toxoplasmosis, amphotericin B is used for leishmaniasis, and trichomycin is deployed against trichomoniasis. Nitroimidazole compounds used for various protozoiasis are analogs of azomycin. Ivermectin is a great nematocide, used for onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, and strongyloidiasis. Paromomycin is used for the treatment of cestodiasis. Recent research for new antiparasite antibiotics is also described. Viral diseases represent a significant and growing threat among the major emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases and studies in this line of research, particularly on antibiotics active against HIV and influenza virus, are briefly covered. Even within the human body, our own essential microbial flora can pose a considerable and extremely complicated threat, such as diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (O157:H7) which is responsible for an emerging disease. Fortunately, recent research has uncovered a new type of antibiotic that only inhibits pathogenicity and does not affect the growth of pathogenic E. coli. The new type of antibiotic is expected to avoid some problems of conventional antibiotics: development of resistant strains, expression of various toxins, and disruption of normal microbial flora read more ...