Caister Academic Press

Chemotherapeutic strategies against Acanthamoeba infections

from: Acanthamoeba: Biology and Pathogenesis (2nd edition) (Author: Naveed Ahmed Khan). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2015) Pages: 217-252.

Abstract

1. Chemotherapeutic agents and Acanthamoeba
2. Membrane-acting agents
2.1. Polyhexamethylene biguanide
2.2. Chlorhexidine
2.3. Alexidine
2.4. Acriflavine hydrochloride and proflavine
2.5. Alkylphosphocholine compounds (phospholipid-like molecules)
2.6. Polymyxin B
2.7. Polymyxin E (colistin)
2.8. Caspofungin
2.9. Ergosterol inhibition
2.9.1. Ketoconazole
2.9.2. Miconazole
2.9.3. Clotrimazole
2.9.4. Fluconazole
2.9.5. Voriconazole
2.9.6. Amphotericin B
2.10. Benzimidazole and Benzotriazole
2.11. Thiazole derivatives
2.12. Statins
2.13. Ceragenins, or cationic steroid antibiotics
3. Inhibitors of DNA synthesis and polyamine metabolism
3.1. Diamidine derivatives
3.2. Methylglyoxal bis (guanyl hydrazone) (MGBG)
3.3. Berenil
3.4. Myristamidopropyl dimethylamine (MAPD)
3.5. Folate biosynthesis inhibitors
4. RNA synthesis inhibition
4.1. Rifampicin
4.2. 5-fluorocytosine
5. Protein synthesis inhibition
5.1. Macrolide compounds
5.1.1. Corifungin
5.1.2. Rokitamycin
5.1.3. Spiramycin
5.2. Aminoglycosides
5.2.1. Paromomycin
5.2.2. Neomycin
5.2.3. Neosporin
5.2.4. N-chlorotaurine
6. Tricyclic neuroleptic agents (calmodulin inhibition)
6.1. Trifluoperazine dihydrochloride and chlorpromazine dihydrochloride (phenothiazine compound)
7. Artesunate
8. Antimicrobial compounds from natural products (in addition to the aforementioned antibiotics)
8.1. Animal-based natural products
8.1.1. Magainins
8.1.2. Alpha-helical and beta-hairpin antimicrobial peptides
8.2. Plant-based natural products (in addition to artemisinin)
8.3. Microbe-based natural products
8.4. Clinically-available drugs against Acanthamoeba
9. Drug targets in Acanthamoeba
10. Drug resistance in Acanthamoeba
11. Disinfectants and Acanthamoeba
11.1. Disinfection agents
11.2. Freeze-thaw
11.3. Heat disinfection
11.4. Microwave irradiation
11.5. Solar disinfection
11.6. Ultraviolet light irradiation
11.7. Gamma irradiation
11.8. Power ultrasound for disinfection
12. Future prospects for treatment
12.1. Antibody-based therapy
12.2. Using a carrier for the drug delivery
12.3. Use of a liposome for drug delivery
12.4. Use of a chitosan for drug delivery
12.5. siRNA-based therapy
12.6. Photodynamic chemotherapy against Acanthamoeba
12.6.1. Photo-inhibition of Acanthamoeba
12.6.1.1. Use of photosensitizers against Acanthamoeba
12.7. "Transcribrial route" for administering antimicrobial compounds in the management of granulomatous amoebic encephalitis as well as primary amoebic meningoencephalitis
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