Caister Academic Press

Acanthamoeba and the immune system

from: Acanthamoeba: Biology and Pathogenesis (2nd edition) (Author: Naveed Ahmed Khan). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2015) Pages: 191-216.


1. Non-specific immune system
1.1. Skin
1.2. Mucosa
1.3. Normal flora
1.4. Recruitment of phagocytes and their mode of killing
1.4.1. Lysosomal-independent mechanism
1.4.2. Lysosomal-dependent mechanism
1.5. Phagocytic call for help (production of cytokines)
1.6. Complement
2. Specific immune system
2.1. Antibodies
3. What are the basic types of parasite immune evasion strategies?
3.1. Non-induction of immune response
3.2. Anatomical seclusion
3.3. Mechanisms of survival in macrophages
3.4. Antigenic variation
3.5. Host mimicry
3.6. Evasion of the complement cascade
3.7. Evasion of antibodies
3.8. Interference with the host immune signalling molecules
4. Acanthamoeba and immune response
4.1. Acanthamoeba keratitis and the immune response
4.1.1. From the contact lens to the cornea
4.1.2. Effect of contact lens wear for extended times on the innate immunity of the ocular surface
4.1.3. Antimicrobial peptides
4.2. Acquired immunity
4.2.1. Immunization using whole Acanthamoeba
4.2.2. Immunization using Acanthamoeba-specific antigens
4.3. Antibody levels in Acanthamoeba patients
4.4. Can cysts evade immune responses?
4.5. Macrophages in vivo
4.6. Neutrophils in vivo
4.7. Macrophages and neutrophils in vitro
4.8. Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis due to Acanthamoeba and the immune response
4.8.1. Complement
4.8.2. Cytokines
4.8.3. T-lymphocytes
4.8.4. Evasion of cytokines
4.8.5. Evasion of antibodies
4.8.6. Evasion of complement
4.8.7. Evasion of macrophages
4.8.8. Acanthamoeba-specific antibodies and activated macrophages, in combination show amoebicidal effects
4.8.9. Evasion of neutrophils
4.8.10. Natural killer cell activity in vivo
5. Effect of immune suppressive component inmarijuana, cannabinoid delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on Acanthamoeba encephalitis
6. Acanthamoeba and the central nervous system autoimmunity
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