Caister Academic Press

Pathogenesis

from: Acanthamoeba: Biology and Pathogenesis (2nd edition) (Author: Naveed Ahmed Khan). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2015) Pages: 153-190.

Abstract

1. Acanthamoeba keratitis
1.1. In vivo models
1.2. Ex vivo models
1.3. In vitro models
2. Granulomatous amoebic encephatlitis due to Acanthamoeba
2.1. In vivo models
2.2. Ex vivo models
2.3. In vitro models
3. Loss and gain of virulence
4. Acanthamoeba: An opportunistic pathogen
4.1. An opportunist with pathogenic potential
5. Crossing of the biological barriers
5.1. Cornea
5.2. Traversal of the blood-brain barrier
6. Direct virulence factors
7. Contact-dependent mechanisms
7.1. Acanthamoeba bind to the extracellular matrix proteins
7.2. Adhesion to the host cells
7.2.1. The structure of MBP
7.2.2. Potential function of the MBP CxCxC repeat region
7.2.3. Evolution of the MBP gene
7.2.4. Other Acanthamoeba adhesin(s) and host cell receptor(s)
7.3. Host intracellular signalling in response to Acanthamoeba
7.4. Phagocytosis
7.4.1. Phagosome formation and fusion with the lysosome
7.5. Acanthamoeba phagocytosis and intracellular signalling
7.5.1. Lysosomal enzymes
7.6. Ecto-ATPases
7.7. Neuraminidase activity
7.8. Superoxide dismutase
7.9. Acanthamoeba-induced plasminogen activation
8. Contact-independent mechanisms
8.1. Hydrolytic enzymes
8.1.1. Elastase
8.1.2. Proteases
8.1.3. A liquid chromatography-based screening methodology for proteolytic enzyme activity.
8.2. Proteases as drug targets
8.3. Phospholipases
8.4. Glycosidases (also called glycoside hydrolases)
8.5. Acanthaporin
9. Indirect virulence factors
9.1. Morphology
9.2. Temperature tolerance, osmotolerance and growth at different pH
9.3. Phenotypic switching
9.4. Chemotaxis
9.5. Ubiquity
9.6. Biofilms
9.7. Effect of cholesterol (or sterol biosynthesis) on Acanthamoeba virulence
9.8. Host factors
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