Caister Academic Press

Life cycle and ecological significance

from: Acanthamoeba: Biology and Pathogenesis (2nd edition) (Author: Naveed Ahmed Khan). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2015) Pages: 67-116.


1. Ecology
1.1. Distribution in the environment
1.2. Distribution in the man-made environment
1.3. Distribution in clinical settings
2. Ecosystem
3. Life cycle
3.1. Trophozoite stage
3.1.1. Growth cycle G1 phase S phase G2 phase M phase
3.2. Cell division in asynchronous cultures
3.3. Cell division in synchronous cultures
3.4. Stationary phase
3.5. Growth regulators
4. Stress management in cyst-forming pathogenic free-living protists
4.1. Commitrment to encystation in Acanthamoeba
4.2. Encystation
4.2.1. At the morphological-level
4.2.2. At the organelle-level
4.2.3. RNA and protein synthesis
4.2.4. Golgi complex
4.2.5. Phagocytic and pinocytic activity
4.2.6. Respiration
4.2.7. Cytoskeletal proteins
4.2.8. Glycogen
4.2.9. Lipids
4.2.10. Other molecular changes
4.2.11. Calcium-binding sites and encystation
4.2.12. Cell wall synthesis
4.3. Outer cyst wall isolation
4.4. Cyst stage
4.4.1. Effects of environmental conditions on encystation
4.5. Excystation
5. Regulators of the life cycle
6. What stimulates encystation?
6.1. Food deprivation
6.2. High cell density
6.3. Cell surface receptors (hyper- and hypo-osmolarity, extremes in pH)
6.4. Encystation-inducing factors
6.5. DNA synthesis and mitochondrial function in encystation
7. Feeding
7.1. Preferential feeding behaviour of Acanthamoeba is not unusual and commonly observed in other species
7.2. Taste and smell
8. Metabolism
9. Acanthamoeba is a heterotroph (chemo-organotroph)
9.1. Glycolysis pathway (also called Embden- Meyerhof-Parnas pathway)
9.2. Krebs cycle (also called citric acid cycle or tricarboxylic acid cycle)
9.3. Electron transport
10. Hydrogenosomal-type anaerobic ATP generation pathway in A. castellanii
11. Isolation of Acanthamoeba from the environmental samples
11.1. Xenic cultivation (non-nutrient agar plates seeded with Gram-negative bacteria)
11.2. "Axenic" cultivation
11.3. Chemically-defined medium
11.4. Methods of encystation
12. Storage
13. Testing viability of trophozoites and cysts
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