ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Transporters in Yeasts, their Role in Multidrug Resistance and Survival
Hina Sanwal, Sneh Lata Panwar and Rajendra Prasad
from: ABC Transporters in Microorganisms: Research, Innovation and Value as Targets against Drug Resistance (Edited by: Alicia Ponte-Sucre). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2009)
Complete genome sequencing of the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and many other pathogenic fungi such as Candida albicans, has led to the identification and classification of proteins belonging to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily. Usually these ABC proteins encode transporters. These transporters provide an advantage to yeasts living in competitive environments by actively secreting toxic compounds, thereby serving as a first-line of defense. Amongst the different subfamilies of the ABC transporters, proteins of the multi drug resistance (MDR) and the pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR) subfamilies are well characterized. Most members of the PDR subfamily are drug transporters involved in the development of antifungal drug resistance caused by the over expression of genes encoding these drug efflux pump proteins. As compared to any other yeast, the role of efflux pumps in drug resistance has been extensively studied in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, several studies in the past decade have given momentum to the research pertaining to ABC drug transporters in pathogenic yeasts as well. The presence of large number of ABC members in yeast genomes suggests indispensability of these proteins and suggests that they are physiologically relevant read more ...