Caister Academic Press

Genome-wide Analysis of Gut Bacteria

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Genome-wide Analysis of Gut Bacteria. A review of current scientific research, applications and resources.

Genome-wide Analysis of Gut Bacteria

Adapted from Makda Fisseha and Fabrizio Arigoni in Probiotics and Prebiotics: Scientific Aspects
Genome-wide Analysis of Gut Bacteria: The human gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a complex ecosystem that is composed of hundreds of different bacterial species that together play an important role in the physiology of their host. Understanding how different species of the gut microbiota interact with each other and how they individually or collectively contribute to our health remains a challenge for the future. One major difficulty is the definition and measurement of a healthy status and the correlation of this to the presence or absence of certain species within the GI tract, bearing in mind that the microbiota varies among individuals. A better understanding of the biology of the organisms found in the GI tract and of how they have adapted to co-exist and interact with their host will undoubtedly help us to appreciate the impact they have on human physiology. In Chapter 5 of Probiotics and Prebiotics: Scientific Aspects we review how genome sequencing of various gut-associated organisms has revealed the ways in which the microbiota have adapted to their specific environments, and we highlight how genome analysis allows us to generate hypotheses about the molecular basis of the interplay between host and microbes. This is illustrated with the recently completed genomes of microorganisms that can be detected in the human GI tract, namely Bifidobacterium longum NCC2705, Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron VPI-5482, Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC533 and Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1. Because many questions related to host-pathogen interactions are akin to those raised for 'beneficial' microbes, we discuss a number of functional genomics approaches that have been applied to the study of pathogens and that could also be relevant to the study of non-pathogenic bacteria found in the intestine. We also review genome-wide approaches to identify Lactobacillus reuteri and L. plantarum genes induced in the GI tract.

Genome-wide Analysis of Gut Bacteria Resources

Probiotics and Prebiotics: Scientific Aspects
Foodborne Pathogens: Microbiology and Molecular Biology
Current Issues in Intestinal Microbiology Peer-reviewed journal.
Molecular Methods for Probiotics Research
Taxonomy of Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria
Lactobacilli in the Gastrointestinal Tract
Exopolysaccharide Production by Intestinal Lactobacilli
Genome-wide Analysis of Gut Bacteria
Genetically Modified Probiotics
Prebiotics and the Infant Microbiota
Bacterial Therapeutics
Current Issues in Molecular Biology
Molecular Biology Resource

Further reading