Caister Academic Press

CIMB Abstract

Curr. Issues Mol. Biol. (2019) 32: 87-122.
https://doi.org/10.21775/cimb.032.087

Signal Transduction of Streptococci by Cyclic Dinucleotide Second Messengers

Zhengyi Li, Xueqin Zhang, Lei Cheng, Xin Xu, Xuedong Zhou, Hui Wu and Xian Peng

Since the discovery of cyclic dimeric guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (c-di-GMP) in 1987, the role of cyclic dinucleotides in signal pathways has been extensively studied. Many receptors and effectors of cyclic dinucleotides have been identified which play important roles in cellular processes. Example of such effectors include cyclic dimeric adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (c-di-AMP)-binding proteins and endoplasmic reticulum membrane adaptor. Accumulating evidence indicate that cyclic dinucleotides act as second messengers that not only regulate the bacterial physiological processes but also affect host immune responses during infections. Streptococci species, which produce cyclic dinucleotides, are responsible for many human diseases. Numerous studies suggest that the cyclic dinucleotides are vital in signal transduction pathways as second messengers and influence the progression of infectious diseases. Here, we provide an overview of the molecular principles of cyclic dinucleotides synthesis and degradation and discuss recent progress on streptococcal signal transduction pathways by cyclic dinucleotide second messengers and their role in regulating host immune reaction. This review will provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of streptococcal cyclic dinucleotide second messengers thereby revealing novel targets for preventing infections.

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