Caister Academic Press

The CRISPR/Cas System: Emerging Technology and Application | Book

Publisher: Caister Academic Press
Edited by: Muhammad Jamal
Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei, China
Pages: c. 120
Paperback:
Publication date: July 2017Buy book
ISBN: 978-1-910190-63-0
Price: GB £159 or US $319
Ebook:
Publication date: July 2017Buy ebook
ISBN: 978-1-910190-64-7
Price: GB £159 or US $319
DOI: https://doi.org/10.21775/9781910190630

The use of CRISPR/Cas technology for genome editing suggests many potential applications, including the alteration of the germline of humans, animals and food crops. The speed and efficiency of the CRISPR/Cas system make it a potentially useful system for gene therapy.

In this volume expert international authors provide a useful and timely review of the applications of the CRISPR/Cas system across diverse fields and explore further avenues and research directions of this novel and powerful editing technology. The technology and its application are reviewed with respect to reproduction and development, immunity and genetic diseases, system structure and system specificity. Some of the potential problems of the CRISPR/Cas system are also discussed, in particular the specificity of the system: this remains an important topic as improvement could lead to the more direct and efficient use of the CRISPR/Cas system in clinical settings. The authors also debate ethical concerns associated with this powerful new technology.

This volume is a rigorous review of the applications and new opportunities for the CRISPR/Cas system and provides a stimulus for current and future research. An invaluable guide for all scientists working in the fields of genome editing and gene therapy the book is also recommended for all life sciences libraries.

Table of contents
1. Type III CRISPR-Cas System: Introduction And Its Application for Genetic Manipulations
Tao Liu, Saifu Pan, Yingjun Li, Nan Peng and Qunxin She
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) genes provide adaptive immunity against invasion of foreign nucleic acids in archaea and bacteria. The system functions in three distinct stages: adaptation, biogenesis, and interference. CRISPR-Cas systems are currently classified into at least five different types, each with a signature protein among which Type III systems exhibit a dual DNA/RNA interference activity. Structures of a few Type III surveillance complexes have been determined: they are composed of several different subunits and exhibit striking architectural similarities to Type I surveillance complexes. Here, we review the genetic, biochemical, and structural studies concerning CRISPR-Cas Type III systems and discuss their application for genetic manipulations, including genome engineering and gene silencing.
2. dCas9: A Versatile Tool for Epigenome Editing
Daan J.W. Brocken, Mariliis Tark-Dame and Remus T. Dame
The epigenome is a heritable layer of information not encoded in the DNA sequence of the genome, but in chemical modifications of DNA or histones. These chemical modifications, together with transcription factors, operate as spatiotemporal regulators of genome activity. Dissecting epigenome function requires controlled site-specific alteration of epigenetic information. Such control can be obtained using designed DNA-binding platforms associated with effector domains to function as targeted transcription factors or epigenetic modifiers. Here, we review the use of dCas9 as a novel and versatile tool for fundamental studies on epigenetic landscapes, chromatin structure and transcription regulation, and the potential of this approach in basic research in these fields.
3. Treating Genetic Disorders Using State-Of-The-Art Technology
Muhammad Jamal, Arif Ullah, Muhammad Ahsan, Rohit Tyagi, Zeshan Habib, Faheem Ahmad Khan and Khaista Rehman
CRISPR-Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR associated Protein 9), basically a bacterial immune system is now widely applicable to engineer genomes of a number of cells and organisms because of its simplicity and robustness. In research avenue the system has been optimized to regulate gene expression, modify epigenome and edit target locus. These applications make CRISPR/Cas9, a technology of choice to edit disease causing mutations as well as the epigenome more efficiently than ever before. Meanwhile its application in in vivo and ex vivo cells is encouraging the scientific community for more vigorous gene therapy and in clinical setups for therapeutic genome editing. Here we review the recent advances that CRISPR-Cas9 mediated genome editing has achieved and is reported in previous studies and address the challenges associated with it.
4. An Era of CRISPR/ Cas9 Mediated Plant Genome Editing
Haris Khurshid, Sohail Ahmad Jan, Zabta Khan Shinwari, Muhammad Jamal and Sabir Hussain Shah
Recently the engineered nucleases have revolutionized genome editing to perturb gene expression at specific sites in complex eukaryotic genomes. Three important classes of these genome editing tools are Moreover, the more recent type II Clustered Regularly Inter-spaced Short Palindromic Repeats/Crispr associated protein (CRISPR/Cas9) system has become the most favorite plant genome editing tool for its precision and RNA based specificity unlike its counterparts which rely on protein based specificity. Plasmid-mediated co-delivery of multiple sgRNAs and Cas9 to the Plant cell can simultaneously alter more than one target loci which enable multiplex genome editing. In this review, we discuss recent advancements in the CRISPR/ Cas9 technology mechanism, theory and its applications in plants and agriculture. We also suggest that the CRISPR/ Cas9 as an effective genome editing tool, has vast potential for crop improvement and studying gene regulation mechanism and chromatin remodeling.
5. CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Immunity in Plants Against Pathogens
Muhammad Sameeullah, Faheem Ahmed Khan, Göksel Özer, Noreen Aslam, Ekrem Gurel, Mohammad Tahir Waheed and Turan Karadeniz
Global crop production is highly threatened due to pathogen invasion. The huge quantity of pesticides application, although harmful to the environment and human health, is carried out to prevent the crop losses worldwide, every year. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms of pathogenicity and plant resistance against pathogen is important. The resistance against pathogens is regulated by three important phytohormones viz. salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET). Here we review possible role of CRISPR technology to understand the plant pathogenicity by mutating genes responsible for pathogen invasion or up-regulating the phytohormones genes or resistant genes. Thus hormone biosynthesis genes, receptor and feeding genes of pathogens could be important targets for modifications using CRISPR/Cas9 following multiplexing tool box strategy in order to edit multiple genes simultaneously to produce super plants. Here we put forward our idea thatthe genes would be either mutated in case of plant receptor protein targets of pathogens or up-regulation of resistant genes or hormone biosynthesis genes will be better choice for resistance against pathogens.
6. Improving CRISPR-Cas9 On-Target Specificity
Muhammad Jamal, Arif Ullah, Muhammad Ahsan, Rohit Tyagi, Zeshan Habib and Khaista Rehman
The CRISPR-Cas9 has revolutionized the field of molecular biology, medical genetics and medicine. The technology is robust, facile and simple to achieve genome targeting in cells and organisms. However, to propagate these nucleases for therapeutic application, the on-target specificity is of paramount importance. Although the binding and cleavage of off-target sites by Cas9 is issue of concern, however the specificity of CRISPR technology is greatly improved in current research employing the use of engineer nucleases, improved gRNA selection, novel Cas9 orhtologs and the advancement in methods to detect and screen off-target sites and its effects. Here we summarize the advances in this state-of-the-art technology that will equip the genome editing tools to be applied in clinical research. The researcher should optimize these methods with emphasize to achieve perfection in the specificity.
7. CRISPR Mediated Genome Engineering and its Application in Industry
Saeed Kaboli and Hasan Babazada
The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat)-Cas9 (CRISPR-associated nuclease 9) method has been dramatically changing the field of genome engineering. It is a rapid, highly efficient and versatile tool for precise modification of genome that uses a guide RNA (gRNA) to target Cas9 to a specific sequence. This novel RNA-guided genome-editing technique has become a revolutionary tool in biomedical science and has many innovative applications in different fields. In this review, we briefly introduce the Cas9-mediated genome-editing tool, summarize the recent advances in CRISPR/Cas9 technology to engineer the genomes of a wide variety of organisms, and discuss their applications to treatment of fungal and viral disease. We also discuss advantageous of CRISPR/Cas9 technology to drug design, creation of animal model, and to food, agricultural and energy sciences. Adoption of the CRISPR/Cas9 technology in biomedical and biotechnological researches would create innovative applications of it not only for breeding of strains exhibiting desired traits for specific industrial and medical applications, but also for investigation of genome function.
8. Applications of CRISPR/Cas9 in Reproductive Biology
Faheem Ahmed Khan, Nuruliarizki Shinta Pandupuspitasari, Huang ChunJie, Hafiz Ishfaq Ahmad, Kai Wang, Muhammad Jamil Ahmad and ShuJun Zhang
Genome editing is unraveling its benefits in wide areas of scientific development and understanding. The advances of genome editing from ZFNs and TALLENs to CRISPRs defines it wide applicability. Reproduction is the fundamental process by which all organisms maintain their generations. CRISPR/Cas9, a new versatile genome editing tool is recently tamed to correct several disease causing genetic mutations spreading its arms to improve reproductive health. It not only edit harmful genetic mutations but is also applied to control the spread of parasitic diseases like malaria by introducing selfish genetic elements, propagated through generations and population via reproduction. These applications made us to review the recent developments of CRISPRs use in reproductive biology.
9. Ethical Issues Regarding CRISPR Mediated Genome Editing
Zabta Khan Shinwari, Faouzia Tanveer and Ali Talha Khalil
CRISPR-Cas9 has emerged as a simple, precise and most rapid genome editing technology. With a number of promising applications ranging from agriculture and environment to clinical therapeutics, it is greatly transforming the field of molecular biology. However, there are certain ethical, moral and safety concerns related to the attractive applications of this technique. The most contentious issues concerning human germline modifications are the challenges to human safety and morality such as risk of unforeseen, undesirable effects in clinical applications particularly to correct or prevent genetic diseases, matter of informed consent and the risk of exploitation for eugenics. Stringent regulations and guidelines as well as worldwide debate and awareness are required to ensure responsible and wise use of CRISPR mediated genome editing technology. There is a need for an extensive dialogue among scientists, ethicists, industrialists and policy makers on its societal implications. The opinion of different elements of the society including the general public as well as religious scholars is also critical. In countries with existing legislative framework, it might be appropriate to allow CRISPR based research to proceed with proper justification. However, much anticipated future clinical applications must be strictly regulated with newly established regulations.

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(EAN: 9781910190630 9781910190647 Subjects: [epigenetics] [genomics] [molecular biology] )