Hany M. Elsheikha and Gerald C. Coles
from: Essentials of Veterinary Parasitology (Edited by: Hany M. Elsheikha and Naveed Ahmed Khan). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2011)
Most animals will carry a few parasites in/on their body and this is normal if kept under control. But, if the infection becomes overwhelming the animal's health will suffer and irreversible damage could result. Indeed, parasite infections continue to be one of the most economically important constraints in raising livestock worldwide, a significant health and welfare issue in companion animals, and an important source of zoonotic infections in humans. Despite tremendous efforts, the number of eradicated parasites is negligible and the perspectives for future eradications would most likely be counteracted by the emergence or re-emergence of other parasite species. Control of parasites can be challenging because parasites can use different immune evasive strategies and/or become resistant to drugs following exposure to the host immune response or to non-judicious use of anti-parasitic therapy, respectively. These challenges necessitate an integrated parasite management approach that encompasses a range of manipulations of the host (e.g. increased genetic host resistance through selecting for low fecal worm egg count, improved host resistance through proper nutrition), the environment (e.g. pasture management, appropriate husbandry, sound sanitation) and the parasite (e.g. sensible use of antiparasitics, maintain susceptible population of parasites, sterile male technologies for insects). This chapter will consider the reasons for parasite control followed by general considerations for parasite control and finally specific considerations for control of endoparasites and ectoparasites in ruminants, horses and companion animals read more ...