Immune Responses Against Shigella During Natural Infection and Induced by Vaccination
from: Shigella: Molecular and Cellular Biology (Edited by: William D. Picking and Wendy L. Picking). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2016) Pages: 229-242.
Shigella is an important gastrointestinal pathogen that affects primarily small children (0-5 years of age) in developing countries. This Gram negative bacterium is a facultative intracellular pathogen that is capable of invading numerous cell types in its human host. Microfold or M cells, macrophages and epithelial cells are the 'main' targets for Shigella invasion during infection, however, dendritic cells and T lymphocytes are also susceptible to bacterial invasion with direct consequences on the resulting the immune response. Many host factors contribute to mounting an immune response against Shigella, but these are not enough to prevent the onset of infection. Furthermore, the host's adaptive immune response tends to be skewed toward LPS recognition which leads to the development of a serotype specific immunity. Therefore, the host is usually not protected against subsequent infections by Shigella bearing different O antigen serotypes. By understanding the immune responses elicited by Shigella, we will more fully appreciate the ways in which Shigella evades the host response and identify the immune mechanisms that provide the most efficient bacterial clearance. This will allow us to identify adequate correlates of protection that could ultimately lead to effective vaccine candidates to prevent shigellosis read more ...