Imaging Techniques to Track Shigella Infection at the Cellular Level
Nora Mellouk and Jost Enninga
from: Shigella: Molecular and Cellular Biology (Edited by: William D. Picking and Wendy L. Picking). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2016) Pages: 211-228.
Cellular microbiology has benefitted tremendously from the usage, adaptation, and development of novel imaging tools. This is particularly true for the study of intracellular bacterial pathogens, such as Listeria or Shigella, due to their complex interactions with the host at the tissue and cellular level. In the case of Shigella, microscopy has been instrumental in uncovering a large number of its infection paradigms, for example how it interacts with different host cell types during the infection of the epithelial barrier, how it employs its type III secretion system (T3SS), how it is internalized into host cells and reaches its cytoplasmic niche, and how it moves both intra- and inter-cellularly. More recently, imaging has also been used to monitor the response of individual host cells to the pathogen during infection in a dynamic fashion. Now, dimensions reaching from only a few nanometers to hundreds of micrometers can be bridged correlating different light and electron microscopy approaches. This is important to obtain functional insights into the infection strategy of Shigella. Imaging probes are being continuously improved and developed to uncover functional paradigms of the Shigella infection process. Furthermore, image processing of the experimental data is increasingly done in an automated way to avoid a potential bias of its interpretation. Improving the links between different imaging modalities and their integration for use in dynamic imaging will provide comprehensive information on the Shigella infection process in situ and in vivo, and for the study of other infection processes as well read more ...