The Cellular Microbiology of Shigella Invasion of Epithelial Cells
Guy Tran Van Nhieu and Philippe Sansonetti
from: Shigella: Molecular and Cellular Biology (Edited by: William D. Picking and Wendy L. Picking). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2016) Pages: 151-168.
In the most impoverished areas of the planet, bacillary dysentery (i.e. shigellosis) remains a major etiology of enteric infections in infants and children below the age of five and still accounts for significant mortality. The subgroup Shigella flexneri and S. sonnei account for the endemic form of the disease, whereas Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 accounts for the epidemic form that is currently rarely observed. Following ingestion, the bacteria invade the colonic mucosa where they multiply. Under its most severe forms, shigellosis is associated with an intense inflammation of the colonic mucosa leading to its destruction, thus the dysenteric syndrome. An infectious dose as low as a few thousand bacteria has been estimated to be sufficient to confer the disease in humans, indicative of the high virulence of Shigella. Shigella is a pathogen restricted to humans and higher primates, probably reflecting the specificity of bacterial virulence attributes adapted to cellular invasion and spreading in the colonic mucosa, as well as to the manipulation of host intestinal inflammatory responses. In this chapter, we will focus on our current knowledge of processes involved in the major step of Shigella invasion of epithelial cells read more ...