Functions of Virus and Host Factors During Vector-mediated Transmission
Stéphane Blanc and Martin Drucker
from: Recent Advances in Plant Virology (Edited by: Carole Caranta, Miguel A. Aranda, Mark Tepfer and J.J. Lopez-Moya). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2011)
Most plant viruses are transmitted by living vectors that transport viruses to a new host plant. One discriminates between circulative transmission, where viruses must pass through the vector interior and are usually inoculated with the saliva on a healthy plant, and non-circulative transmission, where viruses do not need to pass through the vector interior but are directly inoculated from the mouth parts into a new host. Especially transmission of non-circulative viruses has been regarded as a simple process where a vector more or less accidentally transports the virus. However, it becomes more and more evident that this scenario is unlikely, because transmission constitutes a dramatic bottleneck of the virus life cycle, where only very few viral genomes pass to a new host, and where a given virus must do everything to ensure successful transmission. We will show and discuss in this chapter that viruses - also in non-circulative transmission - deliberately manipulate their hosts and vectors in often very unexpected ways to optimise their transmission read more ...