The Regulatory Small RNAs of Neisseria
Yvonne Pannekoek, Dave Speijer and Arie van der Ende
from: Pathogenic Neisseria: Genomics, Molecular Biology and Disease Intervention (Edited by: John K. Davies and Charlene M. Kahler). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2014)
The discovery and characterization of regulatory small RNAs (sRNAs) in bacteria has exploded in recent years. These sRNAs act by base-pairing with target mRNAs with which they share either limited or extended complementarity. Many of them base-pair at or near the Shine-Dalgarno (SD) sequence of their targets and block translation by preventing entry of ribosomes, while others base-pair in regions influencing the stability of their cognate mRNA. Those binding at or near SD regions are the most well studied among bacteria and carry promoters that are often responsive to environmental signals. In the last years, using a variety of approaches, among which are biocomputional prediction, high-density micro array analysis and high-throughput transcriptome analysis, novel sRNAs of Neisseria species were identified. Some of them (NrrF, AniS and a sRNA involved in pilin antigenic variation) were also functionally analysed. In this chapter we will focus on strategies used to identify sRNAs in Neisseria and will highlight studies on those sRNAs for which base-pairing mRNAs were identified and functionality has been demonstrated by experimental approaches read more ...