Host-Kinetoplastid Parasite Interaction at the Immune System Interface: Immune Evasion and Immunotherapy
Arathi Nair, Sunil Kumar, Bhaskar Saha and Divanshu Shukla
from: Molecular Biology of Kinetoplastid Parasites (Edited by: Hemanta K. Majumder). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2018) Pages: 169-206.
Parasites co-evolved with their respective hosts over millions of years. During the process of coevolution, host and parasite bequeath each other with a striking legacy of immune surveillance and immune evasion, respectively. The host-parasite interaction is thus dynamic and complete with cascades of temporally separated responses that characterize different phases of infection; the phases remain connected to each other as if one response leads to the next. In the first phase, the parasite's cell surface molecules interact with the pattern recognition receptors (PRR) on the host cell surface, followed by internalization and recognition of the parasite's intracellular molecules by the PRRs within the host cells. The results of these interactions include, but are not limited to, parasite survival or degradation, moderation of the antigen-presenting functions of the host cells and elicitation of the T cell responses that further control parasite survival in a host. The parasite in each phase modulates the host immune responses to engineer its own survival. Therefore, in this review, molecular interactions between the hosts and the parasites, Leishmania and Trypanosoma, will be described emphasizing the anti-parasite immune mechanisms and parasite-devised immune evasion. How this knowledge helps strategize anti-parasite therapy is also discussed read more ...