New Insights into Pathogenesis of Pneumocystis Pneumonia
Jakrapun Pupaiboo and Andrew H. Limper
from: Human Pathogenic Fungi: Molecular Biology and Pathogenic Mechanisms (Edited by: Derek J. Sullivan and Gary P. Moran). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2014)
Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients. In addition, the prevalence of PCP is increasing in non-HIV patients with suppressed immune status, following the use of potent immunosuppressive therapies. Our understanding of Pneumocystis is based on immunosuppressed animal models. Investigations of the Pneumocystis life cycle, pathogenesis, and host immune response provide attractive targets for the development of novel anti-Pneumocystis agents. Sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim remains the first line regimen for treatment and prophylaxis of PCP. Many aspects of Pneumocystis biology remain unanswered or controversial, such as respiratory colonization, mode of transmission, clinical significance of mutations to currently available anti-Pneumocystis agents, and prophylaxis and therapy in non-HIV immunocompromised patients. There is a critical need to continue investigating this unique medically important pathogenic fungus in order to allow us to develop more effective strategies to prevent and treat Pneumocystis infection read more ...