Regulation of Morphogenesis in Candida species
Sabine E. Eckert, Chirag C. Sheth and Fritz A. Mühlschlegel
from: Candida: Comparative and Functional Genomics (Edited by: Christophe d'Enfert and Bernhard Hube). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2007)
The human pathogen Candida albicans can grow as yeast, pseudohyphae, and true hyphae. This article aims to present an overview of recent research into the regulation of processes underlying morphogenesis in response to external influences. We present a summary of known and novel environmental factors determining cell shape. Our principal focus is to explain the increasing complexity of and relationship between signal transduction pathways, especially new proteins involved in or connected with the Ras1-dependent pathways. We further present recent results from the Tup1/Nrg1/Rfg1 group of regulators, the Hog1 and the protein kinase C pathways, and the influence of pH on morphogenesis. We review factors not presently connected to known networks, and those that influence cell morphology while having other primary functions, e.g. regulation of the cell cycle. We conclude by presenting the recent research on CO2 as a newly described inducer of filamentation in C. albicans read more ...