Molecular Epidemiology and Population Dynamics in Candida albicans
Marie-Elisabeth Bougnoux, Dororthée Diogo, Claude Pujol, David R. Soll and Christophe d'Enfert
from: Candida: Comparative and Functional Genomics (Edited by: Christophe d'Enfert and Bernhard Hube). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2007)
Candida albicans is a heterozygous diploid species that has a predominantly clonal mode of reproduction despite the occurrence of a parasexual cycle. Molecular typing through fingerprinting of genomic DNA with the Ca3 probe has shown that the C. albicans population is divided in five major clades. More recently, multi-locus sequence typing data have indicated the occurrence of additional clades. Clade-specific phenotypes, exemplified in the context of antifungal susceptibility and structure of adhesion molecules, have been identified. Thus, future research on C. albicans should take into account the population structure and expand genome sequencing and investigation of the impact of genetically-engineered mutations to representative isolates of the different clades. Recombination between clades and within clades is marginal and heterozygous genotypes appear predominant. Characterization of closely-related isolates that have undergone micro-evolution suggest that these occur mostly through spontaneous or induced karyotype alterations and/or loss of heterozygosity. Because heterozygous genotypes are predominant in the C. albicans population while spontaneous loss of heterozygosity is relatively frequent, it is likely that heterozygosity confers a selective advantage to C. albicans read more ...