Genome Structure and Dynamics in Candida albicans
from: Candida: Comparative and Functional Genomics (Edited by: Christophe d'Enfert and Bernhard Hube). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2007)
Candida albicans is an obligate diploid with 8 pairs of chromosomes ranging in size from 0.95 to 3.5 Mb, amounting to a haploid complement of 16 Mb of DNA. The genome has a number of features which are rare among fungi. Among these are a complex repeat (the MRS) which occurs, at least in part, on every chromosome and is a frequent site of chromosomal translocation, the stress-induced loss of one of several chromosome homologues with a subsequent effect on phenotype, the involvement of homologous recombination in telomere maintenance, and a centromere which lacks any obvious repeat sequences. There is an exceptional amount of heterozygosity in the genome. Although mating has been demonstrated in the laboratory, no meiosis has been reported. No clinical isolates with the 4N ploidy of the mating products have been recovered, and tetraploids constructed in the laboratory are rapidly outcompeted by diploids in experimental infections. Evidence for recombination, obtained by haplotype analysis, seems most likely to be due to mitotic recombination, which occurs at about the same frequency as in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the laboratory. The emerging completed sequence and the availability of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) map, with markers spaced at about 100 kb, for the entire genome will facilitate further elucidation of the interesting genome dynamics of this important human pathogen read more ...