Calicivirus Environmental Contamination
Gail E. Greening and Sandro Wolf
from: Caliciviruses: Molecular and Cellular Virology (Edited by: Grant S. Hansman, Xi Jason Jiang and Kim Y. Green). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2010)
The virus family Caliciviridae contains four genera Norovirus, Sapovirus, Lagovirus and Vesivirus. Norovirus and sapovirus cause gastroenteritis in humans, while lagoviruses and vesiviruses mostly infect animals and cause a variety of diseases. Norovirus and sapoviruses can also infect a number of animals including cow and pig, respectively. Noroviruses are the dominant cause of human gastroenteritis around the world, infecting all age groups. Their low infectious dose and stability in the natural environment allows noroviruses to be easily spread. Contamination in food and water destined for human consumption has lead to numerous outbreaks of gastroenteritis. Noroviruses have been detected in shellfish, sandwiches, fruit, ice, drinking water and treated wastewater. Direct transmission from food and water to humans is well documented. Increased monitoring and improvements in detection methods may help to reduce the number of infections but regulations and standards need to be addressed in order to reduce viral contamination in the natural environment read more ...