Udeni B. R. Balasuriya and Eric J. Snijder
from: Animal Viruses: Molecular Biology (Edited by: Thomas C. Mettenleiter and Francisco Sobrino). Caister Academic Press, U.K. (2008)
In 1996, the family Arteriviridae was included within the order Nidovirales. Arteriviruses are small, enveloped, animal viruses with an icosahedral core containing a positive-sense RNA genome. The family includes equine arteritis virus (EAV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), lactate dehydrogenaseelevating virus (LDV) of mice and simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV). Three of these viruses were first discovered and characterized a long time ago (EAV-1953, LDV-1960 and SHFV- 1964), whereas PRRSV was first isolated in Europe and in North America in the early 1990s. The arteriviruses are highly species specific, but share many biological and molecular properties, including virion morphology, a unique set of structural proteins, genome organization and replication strategy, and the ability to establish prolonged or true persistent infection in their natural hosts. However, the epidemiology and pathogenesis of the infection caused by each virus is distinct, as are the diseases they cause. Although many questions concerning the basic biology of these viruses remain to be answered, a large amount of data related to the molecular biology of EAV and PRRSV have already been obtained. In this chapter, we will review the basic aspects of arterivirus classification architecture, replication, genetic variation, pathogenesis, vaccination strategies read more ...