CIMB AbstractCurr. Issues Mol. Biol. (2019) 31: 1-20.
Hypothesis of Opposite Interplay Between the Canonical WNT/beta-catenin Pathway and PPAR Gamma in Primary Central Nervous System LymphomasAlexandre Vallée, Yves Lecarpentier and Jean- Noël Vallée
Primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSLs) are angiocentric neoplasia which present dense monoclonal lymphocyte proliferation, and occur in brain parenchyma in 90% of the cases. Activated B-cell like Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma (ABC-DLBCL) subtype represents more than 90% of PCNSLs and is the most aggressive subtype with a cure rate of only 40%. One of the characteristics of ABC-DLBCL subtype is neuroinflammation through the activation of NF-kappaB pathway. c-Myc alterations and protein expression have been shown in aggressive DLBCL. c-Myc is considered as a key prognostic and predictive biomarker for survival in DLBCL, its expression is associated with worst survival rates. Although mRNA of c-Myc is increased by low levels gains of c-Myc, several studies have shown that c-Myc protein expression is overexpressed without c-Myc abnormalities. These high levels of c-Myc protein in DLBCL without genetic abnormalities suggest that c-Myc protein expression may be also increased by other mechanisms or signaling pathways which regulate its expression. In PCNSLs, the canonical WNT/beta- catenin pathway is upregulated while PPAR gamma is downregulated. The opposite interplay between WNT/beta-catenin pathway and PPAR gamma is reviewed here. Activation of WNT/beta-catenin pathway leads to the transcription of genes involved in cell proliferation, mitochondrial metabolism, protein synthesis, and tumor growth, such as c-Myc. PPAR gamma agonists induce the inhibition of several signaling pathways such as NF-kappaB, STAT, PI3K/Akt and WNT/beta-catenin pathway. Activation of PPAR gamma agonists may have a major negative key role in the regulation of PCNSLs progression.
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