CIMB AbstractCurr. Issues Mol. Biol. (2008) 10: 1-12.
Biosensor Recognition ElementsJames P. Chambers, Bernard P. Arulanandam, Leann L. Matta, Alex Weis and James J. Valdes
Molecular recognition is central to biosensing. Since the first biosensor was developed many biosensors have been studied and developed. A biosensor can be defined as a compact analytical device or unit incorporating a biological or biologically derived sensitive recognition element integrated or associated with a physio-chemical transducer. Initially, biosensor recognition elements were isolated from living systems. However, many biosensor recognition elements now available are not naturally occurring but have been synthesized in the laboratory. The sensing of targets, i.e. analytes of interest, is already being influenced by the emergence of engineered binding proteins. Employing the techniques of modern biotechnology, it is now possible to construct DNA polynucleotides at will, thus opening new paths for generation of biosensor recognition elements arising from paths not taken by nature. The following review is restricted to a selective overview of molecular recognition elements, including receptors, enzymes, antibodies, nucleic acids, molecular imprints and lectins currently impacting biosensor development. With the advent of nanostructures and new interface materials, these recognition elements will be major players in future biosensor development. Transduction of the biorecognition event constitutes a separate and obviously important area of biosensor development.
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