Bunyaviridae: Molecular and Cellular Biology
Caister Academic Press
and Richard M. Elliott2
1Department of Virology, Haartman Institute, PO Box 21, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland; 2Centre for Biomolecular Sciences, School of Biology, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9ST, UK
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Fuelled by the application of omics and reverse genetics technologies, impressive progress has been achieved in the field of molecular and cellular biology of Bunyaviridae in recent years. In this book, a panel of international experts review the most important findings, providing a timely and coherent overview of the field. All five genera i.e. Orthobunyavirus, Hantavirus, Nairovirus, Plebovirus and Tospovirus, are covered in seperate chapters. Genetics and evolution of hantaviruses is given a special treatment in chapter 3 while current advances in diagnostics are reviewed in detail in chapter 7. The book closes with an excellent overview of the remaining challenges and future prospects in this fascinating field.
The book is essential reading for everyone working on bunyaviruses and related viruses. A recommended text for all virology libraries.
Table of contents
1. Molecular biology of orthobunyaviruses
Richard M. Elliott and Gjon Blakqori
The Orthobunyavirus genus comprises over 170 named viruses, including the prototype of the Bunyaviridae family, Bunyamwera virus, as well medically significant viruses such as La Crosse and Oropouche viruses, and pathogens of veterinary importance like Akabane and Cache Valley viruses. In this chapter we review the molecular characteristics of orthobunyavirus genomes and encoded proteins, and details of the orthobunyavirus replication cycle. We describe how the development of reverse genetics has paved the way to understand interactions of orthobunyaviruses with the host cell, and in particular the evasion of the host innate immune response. Finally we review the differences in virus replication in vertebrate and invertebrate cells.
2. Molecular biology of hantavirus infection
Hantaviruses are mainly rodent-borne human pathogens with worldwide distribution and mortality rates among infected individuals of up to 40%. Members of the Hantavirus genus can be broadly divided into the Old World hantaviruses, which cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), and the New World hantaviruses, which cause hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). The virus life cycle with few exceptions is very similar to that of other members of the Bunyaviridae family. What is really unique to hantaviruses is the unusual mechanisms by which they cause severe disease in humans and establish persistence in their rodent reservoir hosts. In this chapter, features of the hantavirus life cycle and the virus host cell interaction are highlighted in an attempt to understand what makes hantaviruses among the most important human pathogens of the family Bunyaviridae.
3. Genetics and evolution of hantaviruses
Tarja Sironen and Alexander Plyusnin
Hantaviruses are globally important human pathogens. They are emerging viruses, and both the number of different hantavirus species discovered, and the amount of human infections are increasing. The hantaviral sequence data set is rapidly growing, and several fully sequenced genomes have been reported. Until recently, rodents have been regarded as the main reservoir and evolutionary scene of hantaviruses. These viruses have indeed proven to be an excellent model to study virus evolution and co-evolution of a virus with its host. During the last couple of years, however, majority of novel hantaviruses have been discovered from insectivore hosts instead of rodents, thus challenging some of the earlier views on hantavirus evolution. In the following paragraphs we summarize the current knowledge on the genome organization, genetic diversity, and evolution of hantaviruses from the major groups associated with Cricetidae and Muridae rodents and Soricomorph insectivores.
4. Molecular biology of phleboviruses
Phleboviruses are emerging pathogens in many countries of the world. Rift Valley fever virus which in the past, was responsible for dramatic zoonosis only in Africa, has spread to Saudi Arabia and Yemen in 2000 and other phleboviruses such as Toscana virus or sandfly fever viruses Sicilian or Naples are now widely circulating in the Mediterranean basin. Like all bunyaviruses, phleboviruses are trisegmented negative stranded RNA viruses but differ from others in having an ambisense S segment to encode the nucleoprotein and the nonstructural protein. In this review, we will present the latest advances in the understanding of structure and pathogenesis and in the recent development of reverse genetics.
5. Nairovirus molecular biology and interaction with host cells
Natalia Frias-Staheli, Rafael A. Medina and Anne Bridgen
A decade ago nairoviruses were the least understood members of the Bunyaviridae family. Today this situation is totally different, with huge advances having been made in the field. These have been in three major areas: (1) sequencing complete genomes, as well as conserved regions of additional viruses, thus allowing phylogenetic analysis, (2) understanding the processes of glycoprotein processing and (3) dissecting three ways in which these viruses avoid the innate immune response, viz. removal of 5' triphosphate groups from viral RNAs to avoid RIG-I activation, the action of the OTU domain in the viral polymerase and delaying activation of the interferon pathway. In addition, two new viruses have been discovered, Kupe virus and Finch Creek virus. However, fundamental gaps in our knowledge still remain. The difficulty of manipulating the viruses through reverse genetic experiments has hampered our understanding of the processes of transcription and replication, and individual gene function. Much also remains to be learnt in terms of pathogenesis, and in particular the genomic regions required to induce severe disease, as well as in the area of vector interactions, drug therapy and vaccine design. If current progress continues, the next decade will provide many more exciting insights.
6. The molecular biology of tospoviruses and resistance strategies
Within the family of Bunyaviridae tospoviruses represent the genus of plant-pathogenic viruses. Viruses of this genus are only transmitted by thrips in a propagative manner. Their host range includes economically important agricultural and horticultural crops but also ornamentals. The type species of the tospoviruses is Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), from which the siglum to-spo has been derived. TSWV is not only the best studied but also the most important member of this genus, having a host range that expands more than 800 different plant species within more than 80 different families, monocots as well as dicots (Goldbach and Peters, 1994; Peters, 1998). Tospoviruses have a worldwide distribution and not only occur in (sub)tropical regions, but also in temperate climate regions where they are more restricted to greenhouse cultivations. Among plant viruses, tospoviruses rank among the top ten of economically most important viruses wordwide with annual crop losses up to more than 1 billion US $. (Goldbach and Peters, 1994). In this chapter the current status will be presented on the molecular biology of Tospoviruses and disease management strategies using natural, RNAi- and protein-mediated transgenic resistance strategies.
7. Bunyaviridae infections and their diagnostics: Hantavirus, nairovirus, orthobunyavirus, and phlebovirus genera
Antti Vaheri and Olli Vapalahti
The large family of Bunyaviridae, comprising more than 300 viruses, includes four genera which have important human and animal pathogens, many of which are of global public health importance. Hantaviruses are carried by rodents and insectivores, nairoviruses by ticks, orthobunyaviruses by mosquitoes, and phleboviruses by phlebotomous flies. In humans hanta- and nairo-viruses cause hemorrhagic fevers, hantaviruses also renal and cardiopulmonary syndromes, and orthobunya- and phlebo-viruses affect primarily the central nervous system. Several members of Bunyaviridae such as Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever and Rift Valley fever viruses are important pathogens to domestic animals (cattle, sheep). In the following we review the current methods of choice to detect bunyaviruses in the carrier animals (rodents, insectivores, arthropods) and to diagnose bunyavirus infections in humans and animals, mainly serology to assay specific IgM and IgG antibodies and RT-PCR to detect viral RNA. The viruses within each genus show antigenic cross-reactions, reflecting their phylogeny, and therefore for virus typing neutralization tests or sequencing are often required.
8. Concluding remarks
Alexander Plyusnin and Richard M. Elliott
The preceding chapters in this book have revealed the breadth and diversity of viruses classified within the family Bunyaviridae. Although unified by common characteristics such as tripartite single stranded RNA genome, virion composed of four structural proteins and cytoplasmic site of replication, bunyaviruses show major differences in biological behaviour and replication strategy. The level of understanding of viruses in the five genera is equally diverse. The availability of reverse genetics systems for orthobunyaviruses and phleboviruses, that permit generation of viruses containing defined genetic alterations, has opened up new insights into aspects of replication, genome plasiticity and interactions with the host innate immune response. On the other hand, extensive nucleotide sequence analyses of hantaviruses have provided unparalleled knowledge of their evolution and relationships. However, it is clear that much remains to be discovered about this most interesting of virus families that will keep (bunya)-virologists occupied for many years to come. Below we briefly comment on the most important venues for future studies.
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(EAN: 9781904455905 9781912530526 Subjects: [microbiology] [virology] [medical microbiology] )